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Typhoid

Typhoid infection is acquired through contaminated food or water. Most UK cases are in those visiting friends and relatives in countries of the Indian subcontinent.

Typhoid and paratyphoid are infections acquired by the ingestion of food or water contaminated by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi. They cause very similar diseases collectively known as enteric fever and mainly affect low-income areas of the world where sanitation is poor and clean drinking water is not widely available. The majority of global cases of the disease occur in Asia, but the disease continues to be a concern in other areas including Africa and parts of Central and South America.

The majority of travel-related infections in the UK occur in those visiting friends and relatives in countries of the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan).

Prevention

The risk of acquiring typhoid or paratyphoid can be reduced by ensuring good personal hygiene and following advice on the prevention of food and water-borne diseases.

 

Vaccination

Vaccination is recommended for travellers whose planned activities put them at higher risk of typhoid infection in areas where sanitation and food hygiene are likely to be poor. Vaccinations currently available only protect against typhoid and not paratyphoid infection.

Length of protection

Following a single dose of typhoid vaccine, reinforcing immunisation should be offered at three-year intervals for those at continued risk.

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